Vanadium

Key information
Atomic number: 
23
Atomic weight: 
51
Density: 
6100 kg/m³
Boiling point: 
3723.16° K
Melting point: 
2173.16° K
Heat vapour: 
443.89 kJ/mol
Heat fusion: 
17.59 kJ/mol
Thermal conductivity: 
4 W/m/K

Vanadium is a soft and ductile, silver-grey metal. It has oxides which are amphoteric - they have some characteristics of metals and some of non-metals. The oxidation states of vanadium include +2, +3, +4 and +5 (a +1 oxidation state is rarely seen), each of which has a different colour: all four common states can be demonstrated colorimetrically. A popular experiment places a zinc amalgam in a container into which ammonium vanadate (NH4VO3) is poured. The compound is reduced in stages:

  1. +5 oxidation state = yellow solution
  2. +4 oxidation state = light blue solution
  3. +3 oxidation state = deep green solution
  4. +2 oxidation state = purple solution
Valency: 
YouTube: 
See video
Amazon Books
Image of The Last Sorcerers: The Path from Alchemy to the Periodic Table
Author: Richard Morris
Publisher: Joseph Henry Press (2003)
Binding: Hardcover, 296 pages