Kohl Eye Cosmetics
The elemental symbol for antimony is Sb for Stibium from the Greek stibi to mark. In St. Jerome's translation of the Bible the cosmetic used by Jezebel (II. KINGS IX, 30) and by the Lady mentioned by Ezekiel (XXII, 40), "who didst wash thyself and paintedst thine eyes" is specifically given as stibio. The metal is clearly mentioned by Dioscorides (1st Century), who calls it stimmi and Pliny, who termed it stimmium. The cosmetic known as kohl, was used from the earliest times in the East. Kohl serves the purpose of darkening the eyelids, in order to increase the lustre of the eyes, and literally, kohl means, "to brighten the eyes" - from the Arabic - and is the eyeliner the Egyptians called "mesdemet". The Egyptians used two types of eye makeup:
- Udju was made from green malachite (green ore of copper) from Sinai. Sinai and its mines were considered under the spiritual dominion of Hathor, ancient goddess of beauty, joy, love and women. She bore the epithet "Lady of Malachite." Green as a colour was related to joy.
- Mesdemet a dark gray ore of lead, was derived from either stibnite (antimony sulphide) or, more typically, galena (lead sulphide.) Galena was found around Aswan and on the Red Sea Coast. It was also among the materials brought back by Pharaoh Hatshepsut's famed expedition to Punt and was given in tribute by Asiatic nomads.